Designing the Flight Experiment
NOTE: This is a sub-page of the About SSEP main page which you should read first.
Student teams across your community can propose experiments designed to assess the impact of microgravity (the apparent absence of gravity, also called “weightlessness”) on a physical, chemical, or biological system. For SSEP experiments aboard the International Space Station, an experiment can be run for just hours to days, to potentially over a month. Students can design experiments in diverse fields, including: seed germination, crystal growth, physiology and life cycles of microorganisms (e.g. bacteria), cell biology and growth, food studies, and studies of micro-aquatic life (e.g., brine shrimp).
Each experiment must be designed to work within an existing, flight-ready, easy-to-use, professional research mini-laboratory, which is specifically designed to combine separate sample materials (fluids and/or solids) once in orbit. Each experiment loaded into the mini-lab consists of one to three samples (fluids and/or solids, e.g., seeds and a 2% sugar solution) that are located in what are effectively small test tubes. The experiment is begun in orbit when an astronaut operating the mini-lab causes the test tubes to be brought together, mixing the samples.
For Space Shuttle operations, SSEP used the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) mini-lab. For International Space Station operations, SSEP is currently using the Fluids Mixing Enclosure (FME) mini-lab.
The experiment samples (fluids and/or solids) used in the student experiments must pass a NASA Flight Safety Review.
General Framing of the Experiment—A Simple Concept
The way to think about this REAL flight experiment opportunity is pretty simple, and appropriate for even upper elementary and middle school students—if teachers help them put on their thinking caps. It is worth noting that of the 53 experiments chosen to fly on the first 4 SSEP flight opportunities (STS-134 and STS-135, and Missions 1 and 2 to ISS) 10 were from upper elementary, 19 were from middle school, and 24 were from high school / community college student teams. See the descriptions of the Selected Flight Experiments at the SSEP Community Network Hubsite.
We normally observe the characteristics and processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems under the action of gravity on or near the surface of Earth. These systems all experience the “force of gravity” which dictates a number of fundamental phenomena, e.g., that objects and materials weigh something, a sense of up versus down, and that higher density materials will sink in a lower density fluid. These phenomena are intricately connected with how systems behave, and in biological systems, are fundamental to their function (e.g., bone strength requires bone compression under the force of gravity—without it, as in orbit, bone mass is excreted, because it is no longer needed.) Revealing gravity’s role in the behavior of a system can provide a fundamental understanding of how the system operates.
One powerful means of exploring how a system operates, if you have the means to interact with the system, is to recognize that there are many variables involved in its operation. By varying, i.e., temperature, humidity, lighting, concentrations, etc., and varying them in a controlled way, possibly one at a time, you can see the effect on the system in response to a change in variable. But if you want to assess the role of gravity, whose magnitude is defined by the mass of the entire planet Earth, how do you vary it to see the response of the system? Hint: carrying your experiment to the top of a tall building or to the top of a mountain is not effective. There is very little variation in gravity from Earth’s surface to the top of the tallest mountain. And double hint: taking your experiment to the top of an imaginary mountain whose peak is at the orbit of the International Space Station won’t be very effective either, since gravity at that altitude is still 90% of its strength at sea level.
Now for the good part, and one of the key reasons for building the International Space Station. Objects placed in orbit experience “microgravity” often incorrectly referred to as weightlessness, where gravity magically appears to be turned off. Objects truly appear to be weightless – think of the astronauts you’ve seen floating around – which leads to the very incorrect conclusion that there is no force of gravity so high above Earth, hence an object has no weight. But if that were the case, what keeps the International Space Station orbiting the Earth? What keeps the MOON orbiting the Earth? Gravity is very real in space. The reason gravity seems to be absent is not immediately obvious, but it’s because an object in orbit is in a state of continuous free fall—it is a falling object. (Hmmm … what would the bathroom scale you are standing on show if you were in an elevator whose cable had been cut and is free-falling in a very very tall shaft?)
Not convinced? Take time to explore as a class two great resources that provide a deep conceptual understanding of why astronauts appear weightless—
a. NCESSE’s Center Director Jeff Goldstein, the creator of the SSEP, wrote an enjoyable student challenge on why astronauts appear weightless titled, You Want Me to Take a Bathroom Scale Where?, which teachers and students can read together.
b. NCESSE also developed a great grade 5-8 lesson which easily demonstrates through a hands-on activity that astronauts inside a free falling soda bottle space shuttle appear weightless. The lesson is part of the Building a Permanent Human Presence in Space compendium of lessons for the Center’s Journey through the Universe program. The lesson is titled Grade 5-8 Unit, Lesson 1: Weightlessness, which can be downloaded as a PDF from the Building a Permanent Human Presence in Space page. You can also read an overview of the lesson conducted as part of one of the many Journey through the Universe Educator Workshops, this one in Muncie Indiana.
Here is the cool part. If a physical, chemical, or biological system is brought into a laboratory that is orbiting the Earth, the system will operate as if gravity has been turned off. From the vantage point of the system you are exploring, you’ve turned the gravity variable down to zero, and you can see if the system behaves differently. It is a means to reveal in possibly stark contrast the role of gravity.
Finally, here is the pearl of wisdom, the super sauce, the starting point for your journey. What’s the basic recipe for becoming a real research team designing a real microgravity experiment for the International Space Station? As you navigate through your world on a daily basis, you are knee deep in physical, chemical, and biological systems, and the researcher – the explorer – might ask “How would this system that is interesting to me behave differently if I could turn gravity off? And what might I learn from such an experiment?”
In terms of experimental design, the essential question is:
What phenomenon associated with a physical, chemical, or biological system would I like to explore
with gravity seemingly turned off for a period of time?
And when you’re thinking about a possible experiment, you need to consider that there are constraints on your design, for instance:
• no more than 2 or 3 experiment samples (fluids and/or solids) can be brought together; you can also just fly a single sample that requires no mixing in orbit
• the experiment will be done in the shirtsleeve environment of the International Space Station
• sample volumes are small—this is a mini-lab with small test tubes
• the experiment can be ‘turned on’ by an astronaut, and proceeds on its own for a prescribed number of days in orbit; an astronaut might even “turn it off”
So … consider some basic examples for a possible experiment—
a. You might explore whether a seed germinates in space the way it germinates on Earth. The critical question here—does a seedling have a sense of gravity? Does it know up from down? Is gravity important for proper germination and maturation? What will happen if you take gravity away and allow a seed to germinate? What about long duration space flights where astronauts would need to grow their own food, is it important to know if a seed germinates appropriately in space, and then goes on to grow to maturity? Are some seeds better adapted for germination in microgravity than others? Here’s a challenge: what other questions might come to mind if you brainstorm this as a class? THERE! You are doing experiment design.
b. What about food in space? Do food products in microgravity retain their nutritional value? How long will they remain consumable, i.e., is their shelf life the same as here on Earth? Do bacteria in space spoil food at the same rate as here on Earth? Might those bacteria be somehow affected by microgravity? Your turn to continue brainstorming this one too!
c. Cells are the basic functional unit of life. Their function is pretty important for long duration spaceflight both for the health of the astronauts, and the foods that would need to be grown on the spacecraft. What kinds of questions might you brainstorm regarding cell function in microgravity? Is there something you might put in a test tube bound for orbit that would help you explore answers to your questions?
d. What about the life cycles for different organisms? Is the life cycle dependent on gravity? How would the initial phases of an organism’s life and growth be impacted if we turn gravity “off”? Could that lead to an understanding of the role gravity might play in an organism’s development here on Earth?
Ok, you’re likely getting the hang of this, but to help you continue exploring the remarkable breadth of science that can be performed, and gain more insight into thinking about experiment design, we invite you to read descriptions of the SSEP experiments that have already flown.
Stepping back from these discussions for a moment, it’s important to recognize that this is science. It’s challenging. It’s emotionally rewarding to come up with a brave new idea—a new hypothesis—to test. It’s a journey of exploration … owned by you. And at the most fundamental level, “science” is really just organized curiosity. To do it, you just need to reconnect with that spirit of curiosity that lives within you. And we’re giving you the chance to put forward a hypothesis and propose an experimental test of that hypothesis … aboard the International Space Station, America’s National Laboratory in orbit.
Rocket Science, Scientists, Engineers, and … You
This isn’t “rocket science”, well … actually, it is:) Which means that rocket science, when boiled down to the basics, is not that hard to wrap your head around and can be a great deal of fun. It’s what scientists and engineers get paid to do.
You might want to read something cool about scientists and engineers as heroes. You might also want to read a story about a team of scientists and engineers putting a spacecraft in orbit around the planet Mercury for the first time in history.
Curriculum Support Documents for Experiment Design in the Document Library
The examples of experiments provided in the sections above are just a handful of what grow naturally from a careful classroom exploration of the SSEP Microgravity Science Background and Microgravity Experiment Case Studies documents, which are meant to provide a primer on the categories of science that might be undertaken in microgravity and why, and to provide inspiration and guidance for what kinds of experiments might be proposed. Both documents are found in the Document Library. They offer a great starting point for teachers to get kids thinking about experiment possibilities.
The documents address 9 basic categories of microgravity science: Bacteria, Cell Biology, Fish and Other Aquatic Life, Fluid Diffusion, Food Products, Inorganic Crystal Growth, Microencapsulation, Protein Crystal Growth, and Seed & Plant Studies. For each category these documents provide the science background, why research in this category is important, why gravity is thought to play a role, why experiments with gravity ‘turned-off’ have been done, and the kinds of experiments that might be performed in the mini-lab.
It is also important to point out that for SSEP on the Space Shuttle, the experiment samples (fluids and/or solids) that students used for their experiments had to be selected from a Master List of Experiment Samples, which is an extensive list of non-toxic samples by science category. But for SSEP on the International Space Station there is no longer any requirement to use experiment samples on this list. However, the Master List of Experiment Samples is still provided in the Document Library as a useful list of samples to consider for experiment design across multiple disciplines.
Now that you’ve gotten a sense of the flight experiment opportunity and the basic philosophy of SSEP experiment design, here are some next steps—
If you arrived on this page from the About SSEP main page, and you’re exploring whether your community would be interested in participating in SSEP, you may want to go back to the About SSEP main page, and continue reading.
If your community is already participating in SSEP, and you’re here to gain basic insight into SSEP experiment design philosophy, then other pages of interest include:
The Current Flight Opportunities main page, where you will find an overview of the flight opportunity in which your community is engaged, and whose sub-pages include your flight’s Critical Timeline with important milestone events and deadlines, and a great overview of your flight’s Mini-Laboratory Operation. You need to understand how your assigned mini-lab works, its specifications, and the constraints it imposes on your experimental design so you can start noodling around an experiment that your team can propose to fly. Here’s your chance to be a scientist right now. (REALLY)
The Teacher and Student Proposer Resources main page, which provides an overview of all the resources we’ve made available to you, including the Document Library and FAQ, and—for teachers—the extremely helpful resource titled: To Teachers—How to Move Forward, which provides a straightforward, easy-to-follow recipe for getting your class moving on SSEP and Experiment Design.